Model 2010/M Prism Coupler References

This list of Journal References on the prism coupling technique is divided into the following categories:

An initial short section entitled "Basic Theory of Prism Coupling" lists representative articles on the theory of thin film waveguides and the prism coupling technique.

To illustrate typical uses of Metricon prism coupling systems, a second section entitled "Applications of Prism Coupling" lists journal articles referencing Metricon systems grouped alphabetically by first author under the following categories:

  1. Polymer thin films (microelectronic waveguide and data storage applications)
  2. Inorganic thin films (microelectronic and waveguide applications)
  3. Free standing polymers for packaging applications


Basic Theory of Prism Coupling
Note: The first two articles below (Tien et al and Ulrich et al) describe in detail the theory of thin film optical waveguide modes, the method of exciting and observing these modes with a prism coupler, and the mathemathical techniques employed to extract film thickness and index values from observed mode locations (angles). The third article by Kersten is less rigorous, but more readable, and offers a concise summary of the most important ideas behind the technique. The final article (Adams et al) is included because it extends the basic theory of the first two articles to show that prism coupling also allows accurate measurements of thin films for the non-waveguiding case in which the measured film is deposited on a substrate of higher index (e.g., silicon).

Note: The first two articles below (Tien et al and Ulrich et al) describe in detail the theory of thin film optical waveguide modes, the method of exciting and observing these modes with a prism coupler, and the mathemathical techniques employed to extract film thickness and index values from observed mode locations (angles). The third article by Kersten is less rigorous, but more readable, and offers a concise summary of the most important ideas behind the technique. The final article (Adams et al) is included because it extends the basic theory of the first two articles to show that prism coupling also allows accurate measurements of thin films for the non-waveguiding case in which the measured film is deposited on a substrate of higher index (e.g., silicon).

P. K. Tien, “Light Waves in Thin Films and Integrated Optics”, Appl. Opt., 10, 2395 (1971).

R. Ulrich and R. Torge, “Measurement of Thin Film Parameters with a Prism Coupler”, Appl. Opt., 12, 2901 (1973).

R. T. Kersten, “A New Method for Measuring Refractive Index and Thickness of Liquid and Deposited Solid Thin Films”, Opt. Commun., 13, 327 (1975).

A. C. Adams, D. P. Schinke, and C. D. Capio, “An Evaluation of the Prism Coupler for Measuring the Thickness and Refractive Index of Dielectric Films on Silicon Substrates”, J. Electrochem. Soc., 126, 1539 (1979).

 

Applications of Prism Coupling
Note: Articles in this section primarily reference measurements made with Metricon’s Model 2010 or Model 2010/M systems but a few may reference Metricon’s earlier PC-200 and PC-2000 systems. This is only a small fraction of the published articles referencing Metricon systems and we invite authors to forward references to us for inclusion in this list.

1. Polymer thin films (microelectronic, waveguide and data storage/display applications):

S. Ando, Y. Watanabe and T. Matsuura, “Wavelength Dependence of Refractive Indices of Polyimides in Visible and Near-IR Regions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 41, 5254-5258 (2002).

S. J. Bai, R. J. Spry, D. E. Zelmon, U Ramabadran, and J. Jackson, “Optical Anisotropy of Polymeric Films Measured by Waveguide Propagation Mode Determination,” J. Polymer Sci., 30, 1507 (1992).

S. J. Bai, R. J. Spry, M. D. Alexander, Jr, and J. R. Barkley, “Optical Attenuation in Planar Waveguides of Unidirectionally Oriented Copolyester Film, J. Appl. Phys., 79, 11 (1996).

D. Boese, H. Lee, D. Y. Yoon, J. D. Swalen, and J. F. Rabolt, “Chain Orientation and Anisotropies in Optical and Dielectric Properties in Thin Films of Stiff Polyimides,” J. Polymer Sci., 30, 1321 (1992).

F. Chen, J. Wang, C. Ye, W. Ni, J. Chan, Y. Yang, and D. Lo, “Near infrared distributed feedback lasers based on LDS dye-doped zirconia-organically modified silicate channel waveguides”, Opt. Express, 13, 1643-1650 (7 March 2005).

J. C. Coburn, M. T. Pottiger, S. C. Noe, S. D. Senturia, “Stress in polyimide coatings, J. Polym. Sci. Part B: Polym. Phys., 32, 1271-1283, (11 March 2003).

S. R. Connor, “Engineering properties of high refractive index optical gels for photonic device applications,” Proc. SPIE, Vol. 3937, paper no. 3937-25, January 2000.

C. C. Fay, D. M. Stoakley, A. K. St. Clair, “Molecularly oriented films for space applications,” High Performance Polymers, 11, 145-156 (March 1999).

T. Hattori, T. Shibata, S. Onodera and T. Kaino, “Fabrication of refractive index grating into azo-dye-containing polymer films by irreversible photoinduced bleaching,” J. Appl. Phys., 87, 3240 (2000).

T. Ishigure, Y. Koike, and J. W. Fleming, “Optimum index profile of the perfluorinated polymer-based GI polymer optical fiber and its dispersion properties”, J. Lightwave Tech., 18, 178-184 (2000).

D. Jin, D. Huang, S. Condon, H. W. Guan, S. Cong, A. Barklund, and R Dinu, “Low index electro-optic sol-gel materials”, Proc. Of SPIE, 6020, 602006 (2005).

J. W. Kang, E. Kim, J.J. Kim, “All-optical switch and modulator using photochromic dye doped polymer waveguides,” Optical Materials 21, 543-548 (2002).

J. W. Kang, J. P. Kim, W. Y. Lee, J. S. Kim, J. S. Lee and J. Kim, “Low-loss fluorinated poly(arylene ether sulfide) waveguides with hi thermal stability,” J. Lightwave Tech., 19, 872-875 (June 2001)

M. Khalil, S. Saeed, and Z. Ahmad, “Properties of binary polyimide blends containing hexafluoroisopropylidene group”, J. Macromolecular Sci., 44, 55-63 (2006).

M-S Kim, H. Maruyama, T. Kawai and M. Irie, “Refractive Index Changes of Amorphous Diarylethenes Containing 2, 4-Diphenylphenyl Substituents,” Chem. Mater., 15, 4539-4543 (2003).

C. Lee, Y. Shul, H. Han, “Dielectric properties of oxydianiline-based polyimide thin films according to the water uptake,” J. Polym. Sci. Part B: Polym. Phys., 40, 2190-2198, (13 Aug. 2002).

C. Lee, J. Seo, Y. Shul, and H. Han, “Optical properties of polyimide thin films.  Effect of chemical structure and morphology”, Polymer Journal 35, 578 (2003).

L. Lin, S.A. Bidstrup, “Effect of molecular orientation on the dielectric properties of spin-coated polyimide films,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 54, 553-560 (1994).

H. C. Liou, P. S. Ho, A. McKerrow, “The effect of crosslinking on thermal and mechanical properties of perfluorocyclobutane aromatic ether polymers”, J. Polym. Sci. B, 36, 1383 (1998).

H.C. Liou, P.S. Ho, B. Tung, “Structure-property correlation for thin films of semi-interpenetrating polyimide networks. I. Miscibility, curing, and morphology studies,” J. Polym. Sci. Part B: Polym Phys., 70, 261-272, (1998).

B. Liu, W. Hu, T. Matsumoto, Z. Ziang, S. Ando, “Synthesis and Characterization of Organosoluble Ditrifluoromethylated Aromatic Polyimides,” J. Polym. Sci. Part A: Polym. Chem. 43, 3018-3029 (2005).

W. Liu, Y. Guo, Y. Koike, and Y. Okamoto, “A Novel Thermally and Chemically Stable Polymer: Poly(2-difluoromethylene-1, 3-dioxolane),” Macromolecules, 37, 254-255 (2004).

A.L. Martin, D.K. Armani, L.Yang and K. J. Vahala, “Replica-molded high-Q polymer microresonators,” Opt. Lett., 29, 533-535 (March 15, 2004).

H. Maruyama, T. Kawai, M-S Kim and M. Irie, “Novel Nondestructive Readout Methods for Near-field Optical Recording with Large Refractive Index Modulation in Amorphous Diarylethene Layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 43, 1625-1630 (2004).

T. Matsumoto and C. Feger, “Optical Properties of Polyalicyclic Polyimides,” J. of Photopolymer Science and Technology, 11, 231-236 (1998).

O. V. Mishechkin, R. L. Davis, L. F. Fan, D. Lu, and M. Fallahi, “Passivation of organic-inorganic hybrid sol-gel”, J. Sol-Gel Sci. Tech., 34, 47-51 (2005)

S. C. Noe, J. Y. Pan, and S. D. Senturia, “Optical Waveguiding as a Method of Characterizing the Effect of Extended Cure and Moisture on Polyimide Films”, SPE ANTEC 1991, Paper #376/33.

R. A. Norwood, L. A. Whitney, “Rapid and accurate measurements of photoresist refractive index dispersion using the prism coupling method,” Proc. SPIE, 2725, 273-280, (May 1996).

J. U. Park, W. S. Kim and B. S. Bae, “Photoinduced low refractive index in a photosensitive organic-inorganic hybrid material”, J. Mater. Chem., 13, 738-741 (2003).

M.T. Pottiger, J.C. Coburn, J.R. Edman, “The effect of orientation on thermal expansion behavior in polyimide films,” J. Polym. Sci. Part B: Polym Phys., 32, 825-837 (1994).

S. Qian, J. Colegrove, P. Y. Liu and X. Quan, “Organic-based electrically switchable bragg gratings and their applications in photonics and telecommunications,” Proc. SPIE, 4279, 69 (2001).

M. Ree, K. Kim, S. H. Woo, and H. Chang, “Structure, Chain Orientation, and Properties in Thin Films of Aromatic Polyimides with Various Chain Rigidities,” J. Appl. Phys., 81, 2 (1997).

M. Ree, T.J.Shin, Y.H.Park, S.I, Kim, S.H. Woo, C.K. Cho, C.E. Park, “Residual stress and optical properties of fully rod-like poly(p-phenylene pyromellitimide) in thin films: Effects of soft-bake and thermal imidization history,” J. Polym. Sci. Part B: Polym Phys, 36, 1261-1273 (1998).

Q. Ren, Y.T. chow, F. Q. Meng, S.W.Wang. Z. H. Lu, C.B. Ma, H. Wang, D. Xu and W. A. Gambling, “Optical constants of the nano-crystal and polymer composite thin film PbTiO3/PEK-c,” Journal of Materials Science, 36, 1857-1861 (April 2001).

S.J. L. Ribeiro, Y. Messaddeq, R.R. Goncalves, M. Ferrari, M. Montagna, and M. A. Aegerter, “Low optical loss planar waveguides prepared in an organic-inorganic hybrid system,” Appl. Phys. Lett, 77, 3502-3504, (27Nov. 2000).

S. Sarkisov, M. Curley, D. Diggs, A. Wilkosz, V. Grimalsky, “Optical channel waveguides formed by upconverted photobleaching of dye-doped polymer film in regime of dark spatial soliton,” Opt. Comm. 161, 132-140, (1999).

S. Sarkisov, M. Curley, D. Diggs, A. Wilkosz, V. V. Grimalsky, and G. Adamovsky, “Dark spatial solitons in photopolymer films for optical interconnections,” Opt. Eng. 39(3), 616-623 (March 2000).

S. Sarkisov, M. Curley, A. Wilkosz, V. Grymalsky, “Optical channel wavehuides formed by upconverted photobleaching of dye-doped polymer film in regime of dark spatial soliton,” Opt. Commu. 161, 132-140 (1999).

S. Sarkisov, Z. Teague, P. Venkateswarlu, H. Abdeldayem, D. Frazier, G. Adamovsky, “Formation of a graded-index waveguide in UV exposed polyimide,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2889 (1997).

J. Seo, H. Han, “Water diffusion studies in polyimide thin films,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci, 82, 731-737 (13 Aug. 2001).

W. Shi, C. Fang, Q. Pan, Z. Qin, Q. Gu, D. Xu and J. Yu, “Optimization and characterization of the guest-host polyetherketone polymer films for application in integrated optical devices,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys, 35, 1404-1407 (2002).

T. Takasaki, Y. Kuwana, T. Takahashi, S. Hayashida, “Synthesis and Optical Properties of Polyimides,” J. Polym. Sci.: Part A: Polym. Chem., 38, 4832-4838 (2000).

N. Tanio, “Structural relaxation and refractive index of low-loss poly(methyl methacrylate) glass”, Polym. J., 34, 466-470 (2002)

Y. Terui, S. Ando, “Coefficients of Molecular Packing and Intrinsic Birefringence of Aromatic Polyimides Estimated Using Refractive Indices and Molecular Polarizabilities,” J. Polym. Sci. Part B: Polym. Phys., 42, 2354-2366, (2004).

W. H. Wong, J. Zhou, and E. Y. B. Pun, “Low-loss polymeric optical waveguides using electron-beam direct writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 78, 2110-2112 (9 April 2001).

Y. Wu, Y. Li, B.S. Ong, P. Liu, S. Gardner, B. Chiang, “High-Performance Organic Thin-Film Transistors with Solution-Printed Gold Contacts,” Adv. Matls., 17, 184-187 (25 Jan. 2005).

D. Xu, Q. Ren, P.L. Chu, Y.T. Chow, H.P. Chan, S.Y. Cheng, B.,Chow, S.Y. Guo and H.L. Yang, “Study on the properties of a nanocrystal and polymer composite PbTiO3/PEK-c film with optical anisotropy,” J. Matl. Sci., 39, 6577-6582 (Nov. 2004).

J.H. Yim, Y.Y. Lyu, H.D. Jeong, S. A. Song, I.S. Hwang, J. Hyeon-Lee, S.K. Mah, S. Chang, J.G. Park, Y. F. Hu, J.N. Sun and D. W. Gidley, “The Preparation and Characterization of Small Mesopores in Siloxane-Based Materials That Use Cyclodextrins as Templates,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 2003, 13, 382-386 (May 2003).

Y. G. Zhao, W. K. Lu, Y. Ma, S. S. Kim, S. T. Ho, and T. J. Marks, "Polymer waveguides useful over a very wide wavelength range from the ultraviolet to infrared”, Apll. Phys. Lett., 77, 2961-2963 (6 Nov. 2000).

C. G. Zimba, V. M. Hallmark, S. Turrell, J. D. Swalen, and J. F. Rabolt, “Applications of Fourier Transform Raman Spectroscopy to Studies of Thin Polymer Films”, J. Phys. Chem., 94, 939 (1990).

2. Inorganic materials (microelectronic, waveguide and data storage/display applications):

C. Baker, J. Heikenfeld, and A. Steckl, “Photoluminescent and Electroluminescent Zn2Si0.5Ge0.5O4:Mn Thin Films for Integrated Optic Devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quant. Elec., 8, (Nov.-Dec. 2002).

S. Biswal, S. P. O’Connor and S. R. Bowman: “Thermo-optical parameters measured in potassium-gadolinium-tungstate” CLEO 2004, CThT62 (2004).

S. Biswal, S. P. O’Connor and S. R. Bowman: “Thermo-optical parameters measured in ytterbium-doped potassium gadolinium tungstate”, Appl. Opt. 44, 3093 (2005).

C. S. Burke, O. McGaughey, J.M. Sabattie, H. Barry, A. K. McEvoy, C. McDonagh and B. D. MacCraith, “Development of an integrated optic oxygen sensor using a novel, generic platform”, The Analyst, 130, 41-45, (2005).

B. Chen, P.R. Hua, S.Y. Xu, D.Y.Yu, E. Y.B. Pun, D.L. Zhang, “Mode indices of a special Ti-diffused LiNbO3 waveguide structure: a strip waveguide array embedded in a planar waveguide”, IEEE Phot. J., 4(5), 1553-1559 (October 2012).

F. Chen, X. L. Wang and K. M. Wang, “Optical waveguides formed in Nd:YVO4 by MeV Si+ implantation”, Appl. Phys. Lett., 80, 3473-3475 (13 May 2002).

F. Chen, X.-L. Wang, Q.-M. Lu, G. Fu, S.-L. Li, K.-M. Wang, D.-Y. Shen and R.Nie, “Property study of Si+-ion-implanted Nd:YVO4 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 895-897 (2002).

F. Chen, K-M. Wang, X-L. Wang, X-S. Li, Q-M. Lu, D-Y. Shen and R. Nie, “Monomode, nonleaky planar waveguides in a Nd3+-doped silicate glass produced by silicon ion implantation at low doses”, J. Appl. Phys., 92, 2959 (2002).

S.D. Cheng, Y. Zhou, C.H. Kam, Y.L. Lam, Y.C. Chan, W. X. Que, and W. S. Gan, “Sol-Gel Derived Thin Films of LiTaO3 on SiO2/Si Substrates for Optical Waveguide Applications,” Fiber and Int. Opt., 20, 45-52, (Jan. 1, 2001).

K. S. Chiang, S. Y. Cheng, “Technique of applying the prism-coupler method for accurate measurement of the effective indices of channel waveguides”, Opt. Engr., 47(3) 034601-1 to 034601-4 (March 2008).

M. Dax, “Thin film metrology: visible and UV based techniques”, Semiconductor International, March 1996, p. 81-88.

F. Del Monte, P. Cheben, C.P. Grover, and J.D. Mackenzie, “Preparation and Optical Characterization of Thick-Film Zirconia and Titania Ormosils,” J. of Sol-Gel Sci & Tech, 15, 73-85 (June 1999).

J. Dey, “In-process wafer test and measurement”, Semiconductor International, p. 52 (Jan. 1988).

C. Duverger-Arfuso, B. Boulard, Y. Jestin, M. Ferrari, and A. Chiaseri, “Influence of PrCl3/PrF3 on the optical and spectroscopic properties of fluorogallate and fluoro-gallo-indate galsses”, Opt. Matls., 28, 441-447 (2006).

C. Duverger, M. Ferrari, C. Mazzoleni, M. Montagna, G. Pucker, and S. Turrell, “Optical spectroscopy of Pr 3+ ions in sol-gel derived GeO2-SiO2 planar waveguides”, J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 245, 129-134 (1999).

C. Duverger, S. Turrell, M. Bouazaouis, F. Tonelli, M. Montagna, and M. Ferrari, “Preparation of SiO2-GeO2: Eu3+ planar waveguides and characterization by waveguide Raman and luminescence spectroscopies”, Philosophical Magazine B, 77, 363-372 (1998).

D. K. Fork, F. Armani-Leplingard, M. Lui, and R. A. McFarlane, “Optical properties of epitaxial LaFC3/SrF2/GaAs(111) heterostructure waveguides fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy”, Journal of Lightwave Technology, 14, 611-615, (Apr. 1996).

C.M. Foster, G. R. Bai, R. Csencsits, J. Vetrone, R. Jammy, L. A. Wills, E. Carr and J. Amano, “Single-crystal Pb(ZrxTi1-x)O3 thin films prepared by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition: Systematic compositional variation of electronic and optical properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(5), 2349-2357 (1 Mar. 1997).

R. R. Goncalves, G. Carturan, M. Montagna, M. Ferrari, L. Zampedri, S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, S. J. L. Ribiero, Y. Massaddeq, “Erbium-activated HfO2-based waveguides for photonics”, Opt. Matls., 25, 131-139 (2004).

D. M. Gualtieri and R. C. Morris, “Epitaxial waveguides of aluminum garnet,” J. Appl. Phys., 74, 1 (1993)

B. H. Hoerman, G. M. Ford, L. D. Kaufmann, and B. W. Wessels, “Dielectric properties of epitaxial BaTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 73, 2248-2250 (19 Oct.1998).

B. Kim, K. Park and D. Lee, “Use of neural network to model the deposition rate of PECVD-silicon nitride films,” Plasma Sources Sci. Technol., 14, 83-88 (2005).

Y. Kim, A. Erbil, L. A. Boatner, L. Steingart, T. Mensah and S. Hiamang, “Optical properties of epitaxial PLT thin films”, MRS 1995 Fall Meeting, Nov. 27-Dec. 1, 1995, Boston, MA.

S.L. Li, K.M. Wang, F. Chen, X.L. Wang, G. Fu, D.Y. Shen, H.J. Ma and R. Nie, “Monomode optical waveguide excited at 1540 nm in LiNbO3 formed by MeV carbon ion implantation at low doses”, Optics Express, 12, 747-752 (8 March 2004).

X. Liu, and J. K. Furdyna, “Optical dispersion of ternary II-VI semiconductor alloys”, J. Appl. Phys., 95, 7754-7764 (2004).

X. Liu, U. Bindley, Y. Sasaki, and J.K, Furdyna, “Optical properties of epitaxial ZnMnTe and ZnMgTe films for a wide range of alloy compositions,” J. Appl. Phys., 91, 2859-2865 (1 March 2002).

Y. Lou and D. C. Hall, “Low-loss nonselectively oxidized AlxGa1-xAs heterostructure waveguides”, Appl. Phys. Lett., 93, 26111 (2008).

Y., D. C. Hall, L. Kou, L. Steingart, J. H. Jackson, O. Blum and H. Hou, “Oxidized AlxGa1-xAs heterostructure planar waveguides”, Appl. Phys. Lett., 75, 3078-3080 (1999).

O. V. Mishechkin, R. L. Davis, L. F. Fan, D. Lu, and M. Fallahi, “Passivation of organic-inorganic hybrid sol-gel”, J. Sol-Gel Sci. Tech., 34, 47-51 (2005)

V. J. Nagpal, R. M. Davis, and S.B. Desu,, “Novel thin films of titanium dioxide particles synthesized by a sol-gel process”, J. Mater. Res., 10, 3068 (1995). M. J. Nystrom, B. W. Wessels, D. B. Studebaker, T. J. Marks, W. P. Lin and G.K. Wong, “Epitaxial potassium niobate thin films prepared by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 67, 365-367 (July 17, 1995).

S. Ono, O. Bose, W. Unger, Y. Takeichi, S-I Hirano, “Characterization of Lithium Niobate Thin Films Derived from Aqueous Solution,” J. Amer. Ceramic Soc., 81, 1749-1805 (July 1998).

W. D. Partlow, R. E. Witkowski, R. M. Young, R. Fedder and F. Hagedorn, “Cyclohexane-based Optical Coatings of Diamond-like Carbon”, SPIE Proceedings Vol. 1325, ADiamond Optics III,@ SPIE 1990 Intl. Symposium of Optical and Optoelectronic Applied Science and Engineering.

H. Patrick, S. Frederic, C. Vincent, T. Johann, and G Ludovic, “Selenide glass single mode optical fiber for nonlinear optics”, Opt. Matls., 29, 651-656 (2007).

F. C. Peiris, B. A. Kowalski, X. Liu, U. Bindley, and J.K. Furdyna, “Optical properties of molecular beam epitaxy-grown Zn1-xMnxTe thin films measured by complementary techniques,” J. Appl. Phys., 94, 4717-4719 (1 October 2003).

F. C. Peiris, S. Lee, U. Bindley, and J. K. Furdyna, “A prism coupler technique for characterizing thin film II-VI semiconductor systems”, J. Appl. Phys., 84, 719 (1998).

F. C. Peiris, S. Lee, U. Bindley, and J. K. Furdyna, “Wavelength Dependence of the Indices of Refraction of MBE-grown ZnMgSe and ZnCdSe Thin Films Measured by Two Complementary Techniques”, J. Appl. Phys., 86, 918-922 (1999).

F. C. Peiris, S. Lee, U. Bindley, and J. K. Furdyna, “Refractive index measurements of ZnSe-based ternary epitaxial layers grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on GaAs (100),” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 17(3), 1214-1217 (May/June 1999).

F. C. Peiris, S. Lee, U. Bindley, and J. K. Furdyna, “Precise measurements of the dispersion of the index of refraction for Cd(1-x)Zn(x)Te alloys”, J. Elect. Mater. 29, 798 (2000).

F. C. Peiris, S. Lee, U. Bindley, and J.K. Furdyna, “ZnMgSe/ZnCdSe and ZnMgSe/ZnSeTe distributed Bragg reflectors grown by molecular beam epitaxy”, J. Appl. Phys., 86, 719-724, (15 July 1999).

F. C. Peiris, U. Bindley, and J. K. Furdyna, “Determination of the indices of refraction of molecular-beam-epitaxy-grown ZnSe/ZnCdSe multiple-quantum-well structures”, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 19, 1497-1500 (Jul./Aug. 2001).

F. C. Peiris, U. Bindley, and J. K. Furdyna, H. Kim, A. K. Ramdas, and M. Grimsditch, “Determination of the dispersion of the index of refraction and the elastic moduli for molecular-beam-epitaxy-grown Zn1-xBexSe alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 79, 473-475 (23 July 2001).

F. C. Peiris, S. Lee, U. Bindley, and J. K. Furdyna, “Precise and efficient ex situ technique for determining compositions and growth rates in molecular-beam epitaxy grown semiconductor alloys,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B18(3), 1443-1447 (May/June 2000).

J. Piascik, and J. Thompson, “Evaluation of crystallinity and film stress in yttria-stabilized zirconia thin films”, J. Vac, Sci. and Technol. A, 23, 1419-1424 (Sept. 2005).

W. D. Partlow, R. E. Witkowski, R. M. Young, R. Fedder and F. Hagedorn, “Cyclohexane-based Optical Coatings of Diamond-like Carbon”, SPIE Proceedings Vol. 1325, ADiamond Optics III,@ SPIE 1990 Intl. Symposium of Optical and Optoelectronic Applied Science and Engineering.

H. A. Qiao, N.C. Anheier, J.D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, and D. W. Hewak, “Measurement of chalcogenide glass optical dispersion using a mid-infrared prism coupler”, Proc. SPIE 8016, 80160F (2011).

T. Rajagopalan, X. Wang, B. Lahlouh, C. Ramkumar, P. Dutta, and S. Gangopadhyaya, “Low temperature deposition of nanocrystalline silicon carbide films by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition and their structural and optical characterization”, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 5252 (2003).

Q. Ren, Y.T. chow, F. Q. Meng, S.W.Wang. Z. H. Lu, C.B. Ma, H. Wang, D. Xu and W. A. Gambling, “Optical constants of the nano-crystal and polymer composite thin film PbTiO3/PEK-c,” Journal of Materials Science, 36, 1857-1861 (Apr. 2001).

S.J. L. Ribeiro, Y. Messaddeq, R.R. Goncalves, M. Ferrari, M. Montagna, and M. A. Aegerter, “Low optical loss planar waveguides prepared in an organic-inorganic hybrid system,” Appl. Phys. Lett, 77, 3502-3504, (27 Nov. 2000).

S. I. Ro, Y. S. Jung, D. W. Shin, “The effects of Er/Al co-doping on the fluorescence of silica waveguide film”, J. Cer. Proc. Res., 2, 155-159 (2001).

S. Sakida, T. Nanba, and Y. Miura, “Optical properties of Er3+-doped tungsten tellurite glass waveguides by Ag+ – Na+ ion-exchange”, Opt. Mat., 30, 586-593 (2007).

S. Sakida, T. Nanba, and Y. Miura, “Refractive-index profiles and propagation losses of Er3+-doped tungsten tellurite glass waveguides by Ag+ – Na+ ion-exchange”, Matls. Lett., 60, 3413-3415 (2006).

A. Sakoh, M. Takahashi, T. Yoko, J Nishii, H. Nishiyama, I. Miyamoto, “Photochemical process of divalent germanium responsible for photorefractive index change in GeO2-SiO2 glasses”, Optics Express, 11, 2679 (2003).

S. S. Sarkisov, E. K. Williams, D. Ila, P. Venkateswarlu, and D. B. Poker, “Vanishing optical isolation barrier in double implanted lithium niobate waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 68, 2329 (1996).

T. Sharda, T. Soga and T. Jimbo, “Optical properties of nanocrystalline diamond films by prism coupling technique”, J. Applied Physics, 93, 101-105 (2005).

L. Shi, G. Zhang, J. Wang and D. Lo, “Distributed feedback laser action in sol-gel glass symmetric waveguides”, J.Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt., 5, (March 2003) L1-L4.

M. Takahashi, A. Sakoh, K. Ichii, Y. Tokuda, T. Yoko and J. Nishii, “Photosensitive GEO2-SiO2 films for ultraviolet laser writing of channel waveguides and Bragg gratings with Cr-loaded waveguide structure. Applied Optics”, 42, 4594-4598 (1 August 2003).

J. E. Tong, K. Schertenleib, and R. A. Carpio, “Process and film characterization of PECVD borophosphosilicate films for VLSI applications,” Solid State Tech., 27, 161 (January 1984).

D. H. Tsou, M. H. Chou, P. Santhanaraghavan, Y. H. Chen, Y. C. Huang, “Structural and optical characterization for vapor-phase proton exchanged lithium niobate waveguides”, Materials Chemistry and Physics, 78, 474-479 (2002).

D.Y. Wang, S. Li, H.L.W. Chan, and C.L. Choy, "Electro-Optic Characterization of Epitaxial Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 Thin Films Using Prism Coupling Technique", Current Applied Physics 11 (2011) S52-S55.

K. M. Wang, H. Hu, F. Chen, F. Lu, J.H. Zhang, X. D. Liu, J. T., Liu and B. R. Shi, “Damage profile and mode observation in LiTaO3 by low-energy H+ ions,” Can. J. Phys./Rev. Can. Phys. 79(6), 921-927 (2001).

X. L. Wang, F. Chen, K. M. Wang, Q. M. Lu, D. Y. Shen, and R. Nie, “Planar Optical waveguides in ß-BaB2O4″, Appl. Phys. Lett., 85, 1457-1459 (30 August 2004).

X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, F. Chen, G. Fu, S. L. Li, H. Liu, L. Gao, D. Y. Shen, H. J. Ma, and R Nie, “Optical properties of stochiometric LiNbO3 waveguides formed by low-dose oxygen ion implantation”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 044103 (2005).

X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, and S. Li, “Low propagation loss of the waveguides in fused silica by oxygen ion implantation”, Opt. Exp. 12, 4675 (2004).

M. Watts, T. Perera, B. Ozarski, D. Meyers and R. Tan, “Photoresist as its own process monitor”, Solid State Technology, p. 69 (July 1988).

Z.J. Xin, R. J. Peaty, H. N. Rutt and R. W. Eason, “Epitaxial growth of high-quality ZnS films on sapphire and silicon by pulsed laser deposition,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 14, 695-698 (1999).

Y.Yi, J.G. Sandland, S. Akiyama, X. Duan, and L.C. Kimerling, “Prism coupling to on-chip silicon based Bragg cladding waveguide,” Appl. Pys. Lett., 85, 3381-3383 (18 October 2004).


3. Free standing polymers for food, consumer packaging, and other applications:

C. Y. Cha, and R. J. Samuels, “Effect of orientation on the relative dispersion of PMDA-ODA polyimide and polypropylene”, J. Polym. Sci. B: Polym. Phys., 33, 259-267 (1995).

C. Y. Cha, R. Samuels, S. Hardaker, and R. Gregory, “New approaches to the study of polyaniline” Synthetic Metals, 84, 743-746 (1997).

C. Y. Cha, S. Hardaker, and R. J. Samuels, “Three dimensional determination of optical anisotropy in deformed polyimide films by a new wave guide coupling technique”, 1992 Polymer Processing Meeting, Knoxville, TN.

F. Chambon, and S. Srninvas, “Orientation analysis of cast and blown polyethylene films”, J. Plastic Film and Sheeting, 15, 297-307 (1999).

H. Fruitwala, P. P. Shirodkar, P. J. Nelson, and S. D. Schregenberger, “Characterization of blown film morphology”, SPE ANTEC 1994.

S. Hardaker, S. Moghazy and R. Samuels, “Three dimensional characterization of molecular anisotropy in freestanding polymer films by a new wave guide coupling technique”, 1992 FACSS meeting in Philadelphia, PA, Sept. 20-25, 1992.

S. S. Hardaker and R. J. Samuels, “Determination of intrinsic molecular parameters of PMD-ODA by molecular modeling and experimental observation”, 1993 ANTEC Conference in New Orleans.

S. S. Hardaker and R. J. Samuels, “Characterization of molecular orientation in PMDA-ODA polyimide via polarized FTIR and prism-waveguide coupling techniques”, 1993 Pittsburgh Conference in Atlanta, Georgia.

S. S. Hardaker and R. J. Samuels, “A process-structure-property study of anisotropic PMDA-ODA films”,
J. Polym. Sci. B: Polym. Phys., 35, 777-788 (1997).

S. S. Hardaker, S. Moghazy, C. Y. Cha, and R. J. Samuels, “Quantitative characterization of optical anisotropy in high refractive index films,” J. Polym. Sci. B: Polym. Phys., 31, 1951 (1993).

Y.S. Hu, V. Prattipati, A. Hiltner, E. Baer, and S. Mehta, “Improving transparency of stretched PET/MXD6 blends by modifying PET with isophthalate”, Polymer, 46, 5202-5210 (2005).

R. Krishnaswamy, and J. Janzen, “Exploiting refractometry to calculate the density of polyethylene: the Lorenz-Lorenz approach revisited”, Polym. Testing, 24, 762-765 (2005).

R. K. Krishnaswamy, A. M. Sukhadia, “Orientation characteristics of LLDPE blown films and their implication on Elmendorf tear performance”, Polymer 41, 9205-9217 (2000).

T. Liu and R. J. Samuels, “Optical constants determination of absorbing polymer film with the prism wave-guide coupler”, SPE ANTEC, 47, 1374-1379 (2001).

T. Liu and R. J. Samuels, “The influence of hydrogen chloride doping level on the complex refractive indices of anisotropic polyaniline film: application of a new internal reflection waveguide coupling technique”, J. Polym. Sci. Part B: Polym. Phys., 39, 2481-2490 (2001).

T. Liu and R. J. Samuels, “Characterize with a wave-guide coupler”, R&D Magazine, December 2000, p. 55.

V. Prattipati, Y.S. Hu, S. Bandi, S. Mehta, D. A. Schiraldi, A.. Hiltner, and E. Baer, “Improving the transparency of stretched poly(ethyleneterephthalate)/polyamide blends”, J. Poly. Sci., 99, 225-235 (2006).

P. P. Shirodkar, V. Firdaus, H. Fruitwala, “Scale-up of LLDPE blown film extrusion”, Plastics Engineering, 50, 27 (Dec. 1, 1994).

L. S. Somlai, R.Y. F. Liu, L. M. Landoll, A. Hiltner, E. Baer, “Effect of Orientation on the Free Volume and Oxygen Transport of a Polypropylene Copolymer,” J. Polym. Sci. Part B: Polym. Phys., 43, 1230-1243 (2005).

S. Srinivas, and P. Brant, “Structure and properties of oriented polyethylene films”, Polym. Engr. and Sci., 43, 831-849 (2003).